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We provide electrical projects based on power electronics, MATLAB Simulink and SIM Power
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TMC: Exploiting Trajectories for Multicast in Sparse Vehicular Networks Multicast is a crucial routine operation for vehicular networks, which underpins important functions such as message dissemination and group coordination. As vehicles may distribute over a vast area, the number of vehicles in a given region can be limited which results in sparse node distribution in part of the vehicular network. This poses several great challenges for efficient multicast, such as network disconnection, scarce communication opportunities and mobility uncertainty. Existing multicast schemes proposed for vehicular networks typically maintain a forwarding structure assuming the vehicles have a high density and move at low speed while these assumptions are often invalid in a practical vehicular network. As more and more vehicles are equipped with GPS enabled navigation systems, the trajectories of vehicles are becoming increasingly available. In this work, we propose an approach called TMC to exploit vehicle trajectories for efficient multicast in vehicular networks. The novelty of TMC includes a message forwarding metric that characterizes the capability of a vehicle to forward a given message to destination nodes, and a method of predicting the chance of inter-vehicle encounter between two vehicles based only on their trajectories without accurate timing information. TMC is designed to be a distributed approach. Vehicles make message forwarding decisions based on vehicle trajectories shared through inter-vehicle exchanges without the need of central information management. We have performed extensive simulations based on real vehicular GPS traces and compared our proposed TMC scheme with other existing approaches. The performance results demonstrate that our approach can achieve a delivery ratio close to that of the flooding-based approach while the cost is reduced by over 80 percent.