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Frequency-Tuning Negative-Conductance Boosted Structure and Applications for Low-Voltage Low-Power Wide-Tuning-Range VCO A frequency-tuning negative-conductance (-Gm) boosted structure and applications for a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is presented in this paper. Analog tuning varactors connected to a -Gmboosted structure is proposed to significantly alleviate the limitation of the tuning range for the -Gmboosted structure, resulting in a low-voltage low-power wide-tuning-range VCO. Based on the proposed architecture, the fabricated 0.18-μm CMOS VCO exhibits a measured 49.8% tuning range. Operating at 0.65 V low supply voltage, the VCO core consumes 2.37-mW dc power. At this bias condition, the measured average value of phase noise for all frequency ranges is -115.1 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset from the carriers. Relative to recently published wide-tuning-range CMOS VCOs, the proposed VCO simultaneously achieves low supply voltage, low dc power dissipation, low phase noise, and a wide tuning range, leading to a good figure-of-merit (FOM) and FOM including the tuning range. Furthermore, formulas of analysis for the proposed frequency-tuning -Gm boosted structure and wide VCO tuning range are presented, and the mechanisms are validated by experiments.