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Whitespace-Aware TSV Arrangement in 3-D Clock Tree Synthesis

Whitespace-Aware TSV Arrangement in 3-D Clock Tree Synthesis Through-silicon-via (TSV) could provide vertical connections among different dies in 3-D integrated circuits (3-D ICs), but the significant silicon area occupied by TSVs may bring great challenge to designers in 3-D clock tree synthesis (CTS), because only a few whitespace blocks can be used for clock TSV insertion after floorplan and placement are determined, specifically in the area-efficient 3-D IC designs. This paper proposes a whitespace-aware TSV arrangement algorithm in 3-D CTS, which mainly consists of three stages: sink preclustering, whitespace-aware 3-D method of means and medians (3-D-MMMs) topology generation, and deferred-merge embedding merging segment reconstruction. By leveraging the TSV-to-TSV coupling model, we also propose an efficient clock TSV arrangement method to alleviate the coupling effect of adjacent TSVs. Compared with the traditional 3-D-MMM-based CTS with TSV moving adjustment, the experimental results show that our proposed algorithm is more practical and efficient, achieving 49.2% reduction on the average skew and 1.9% reduction on the average power.

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